Category Archives: Political Economy

Stephen Jones – Between Ideology and Pragmatism: Social Democracy and the Economic Transition in Georgia 1918-21

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-21) was a novel experiment in social democracy in the most unexpected time and place 당신과는 천천히. Georgia was rural and mostly illiterate, and its leaders faced the complex tasks of nation and state building in conditions of external threat, internal conflict, and global economic depression 다운로드. The first democratically elected social democratic government in Europe, it confronted the inevitable tensions between market principles and socialist ideals 잔잔한 노래 다운로드. The new government’s economic policies reflected the dilemmas and contradictions faced by all social democratic parties in a capitalist environment cubicreator 다운로드. The new leaders created a mixed economy, framed by social democratic goals, but driven by pragmatism. Economic pioneers, how successful were they in creating a sustainable economic system and a model for other European socialists to follow 에벌리 다운로드?

Jones S. (2014). Between Ideology and Pragmatism: Social Democracy and the Economic Transition in Georgia 1918-21. Caucasus Survey, Vol.1, No.2, April 2014, 63-81 구글어스 모바일.


Gerald Mars and Yochanan Altman – The Cultural Bases of Soviet Georgia’s Second Economy

The primary purpose of this paper is to demonstrate, with the aid of illustrative cases, the link between the core values of Georgian culture and the working principles of its second economy 이투스 앱 다운로드. Authors aim to show that only by first understanding underlying cultural forces can we begin to grasp the reasons why Georgia, of all the Soviet Republics, should possess such a dynamic and deeply entrenched second economy 나홀로집에1.

Mars, G., & Altman, Y. (1983). The cultural bases of Soviet Georgia’s second economy. Europe‐Asia Studies, 35(4), 546-560 슬픈 씬 다운로드.


S. Neil MacFarlane – Post-Revolutionary Georgia on the Edge?


This briefing paper explores Georgia’s economic model in two parts: an analysis of economic trends; and a consideration of the country’s recent political development 유튜브 avi 다운로드. Each part examines first the state’s performance in the period 2003–08 and then considers trends since the war.

MacFarlane, S. N. (2011) 알이씨 다운로드. Post-revolutionary Georgia on the Edge?. Chatham House.


Stephen F. Jones – Kakha Bendukidze and Georgia’s Failed Experiment

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Kakha Bendukidze died in November 2014 at the age of 58. Bendukidze directed the whirlwind of economic reform that characterised Georgia from 2004 to 2008-9 다운로드.

Jones, S. F. (2015). Kakha Bendukidze and Georgia’s failed experiment. openDemocracy.


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IDEA – Building Democracy in Georgia


As a contribution to promoting sustainable democracy in Georgia and in the wider context in the South
Caucasus region, International IDEA, in partnership with Georgian and regional actors, initiated a programme
of ‘democratic assessment through dialogue’ in Georgia, in autumn 2001 다운로드.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2003). Building Democracy in Georgia: Democratization in Georgia.

Download Paper 1; Paper 2; Paper 3; Paper 4; Paper 5; Paper 6; Paper 7; Paper 8Paper 9; Paper 10; Paper 11; Paper 12; Summary

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