When most of Eastern Europe was struggling with dictatorships of one kind or another, the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921) established a constitution, a parliamentary system with national elections, an active opposition, and a free press 피땀눈물 다운로드. Like the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918, its successors emerged after 1991 from a bankrupt empire, and faced, yet again, the task of establishing a new economic, political and social system from scratch 나의 왼발. In both 1918 and 1991, Georgia was confronted with a hostile Russia and followed a pro-Western and pro-democratic course. The top regional experts in this book explore the domestic and external parallels between the Georgian post-colonial governments of the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries 다운로드. How did the inexperienced Georgian leaders in both eras deal with the challenge of secessionism, what were their state building strategies, and what did democracy mean to them 다운로드? What did their electoral systems look like, why were their economic strategies so different, and how did they negotiate with the international community neighbouring threats 엑소의 쇼타임 다운로드. These are the central challenges of transitional governments around the world today. Georgia’s experience over one hundred years suggests that both history and contemporary political analysis offer the best (and most interesting) explanation of the often ambivalent outcomes 태블릿 윈도우 다운로드.
Jones, S. F. (2014). The Making of Modern Georgia, 1918-2012: The First Georgian Republic and Its Successors다운로드. Routledge.
This article charts the trajectories of different concepts, theories and paradigms deployed over the past 20 years to understand de facto states in the South Caucasus, and in particular their internal dynamics 다운로드. It is argued that while external factors are central to the sustainability of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorny Karabakh, scholarship on these entities has increasingly over time asserted the relevance of their internal politics 다운로드. The article discusses how over the last decade this analysis has increasingly conflicted with the revival of the region’s central state authorities, whose conceptual reading and policy repertoires vis-à-vis de facto states remain focused on their external support structures 다운로드.
Broers, L. (2013). Recognising politics in unrecognised states: 20 years of enquiry into the de facto states of the South Caucasus. Caucasus Survey, 1(1), 59-74 스타 헌터 맵 다운로드.
This paper deals with the case of the Mingrelians, a group inhabiting the western province of Mingrelia in Georgia, and formerly also part of the disputed territory of Abkhazia 다운로드. The author seeks to identify the different sources constituting a Mingrelian identity and the different frames of reference to which they apply. Secondly the paper will present a survey of the different modern attempts to construct Mingrelian identity, and analyse their approach in relation to the sources of identity available 사다리타기 다운로드.
Broers, Laurence. “Who are the Mingrelians? Language, Identity and Politics in Western Georgia.” 6. Annual Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities다운로드. 2001.