The paper first discusses the extent to which the vulnerability of the regime was exposed before and during the electoral process. Author then examines the factors that contributed to popular mobilization, noting at first why mobilization was surprising even given government vulnerability. Third, he assesses the role of U.S. intervention and Serbian-inspired NGOs and offer tentative conclusions regarding their effects. The appendix addresses the question of why alternative electoral breakthroughs did not occur.
Welt, C. (2006). Regime vulnerability and popular mobilization in Georgia’s Rose Revolution. Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law Working Papers, (67).