Project “Georgica” presents the brief overview of publications about Georgia issued in September, 2014.
Babayan, N. (2014). European Union and United States Democracy Promotion: EU, US, and Russia in the South Caucasus. Routledge.
This book investigates democracy promotion by the European Union and the United States of America, and seeks to uncover why intensive democracy promotion has resulted in limited democratic progress. Exploring case studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, this book examines the conditions in which democracy promotion is more likely to result in democratic transformation. In addition, it introduces the concept of the “democracy blocker,” a powerful authoritarian regional actor that is capable of blocking democratization in other countries. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of Political Science, Democracy, Democratization, EU Studies, US Politics, Comparative Politics, and Foreign Policy.
Pelkmans, M. (2014). Paradoxes of Religious Freedom and Repression in(Post-)Soviet Contexts. Journal of Law and Religion, 29(3).
Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Georgia and Kyrgyzstan, this article documents the contradictory effects that both repressive and liberal policies and laws have on religious expression. Thus, while Soviet anti-religious policies undeniably caused much suffering and hardship, religious repression also contributed to an intensification of religious experience among certain Muslim and evangelical groups. And while religious freedom laws expanded the scope for public religious organization and expression, they also produced new inequalities between religious groups, as the cases of Georgia and Kyrgyzstan demonstrate. Ultimately, the article shows that the effects of liberal and repressive laws are far from straightforward and need to be analyzed in relation to the social context in which they are applied.
Jasutis, G. (2014). Military integration between Russia and South Ossetia: quo vadis?. Russian Armed Forces Military Reforms and Capability Development (2008-2012), 16(1), 46.
The article focuses on the South Ossetian and Russian military integration, determining its effectiveness, potential and durability by employing the methodology of military integration. The work is divided into four stages to determine the level of durability and cooperation between Russian and South Ossetian militaries. The article concludes that the military integration has reached the fourth level, which supports a functional dependency between the Russian and South Ossetian armed forces and the cost-effective implementation of military tasks and defense policy.
Hewitt, G. (2014). History in the Context of the Georgian-Abkhazian Conflict. Iran and the Caucasus, 18(3), 289-314.
As long as the Georgian-Abkhazian dispute remains unresolved, there will be problems regarding inter-state relations with/for western Transcaucasia. And there can be no resolution of the Abkhazian issue without a proper understanding of Abkhazia’s history (both ancient and more recent); it was to try to ensure that the debate is not based on misconceptions, unsubstantiated assertions or even plain errors that this article was written. It is grounded on a consideration of a range of materials (from Agathias’ Greek text through relevant discussions in Georgian, Russian and English). The toppling of Abkhazia’s democratically elected president (Aleksandr Ankvab) at the end of May 2014 makes the question of Abkhazia even more topical.
Weinar, A. (2014). A Look at Migrations in the Post‐Soviet Space–the Case of Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and Russian Federation. International Migration, 52(5), 47-51.
Oskanian, K. (2014). Balancing a Tightrope: Constraints, Possibilities and Ideology in Georgian Foreign Policy, 1991-2014. UACES 44th Annual Conference, Cork, 1-3 September, 2014.
This essay will analyse the complex Georgian-Russian-Western triangle from a neo-classical realist theoretical viewpoint. It provides explanation of Georgia’s foreign and security policy behaviour encompassing 4 distinct periods: Shevardnadze’s early period (1992-96), marked by rapprochement with Russia after Zviad Gamsakhurdia’s disastrous presidency; Shevardnadze’s late period (1996-2003), marked by an increasingly Westward-leaning policy; Saakashvili’s early period (2003-2008), marked by stridently pro-Western policies and strong corresponding ideological inclinations; and a late Saakashvili period with pro-Western policies being maintained despite of the heavy defeat of the 2008 war.
Dell’Aguzzo, L. (2014). Modes of Transition and the Timing of Civil War Onset: A Comparative Analysis of South Ossetia and Kosovo. XXVIII Sisp Conference, University of Perugia, September 11-13, 2014.
The aim of this paper is to explain how the modes of regime change influence the timing of civil war onset, that is why some paths of transition from autocracy favoured the escalation of political violence in the short-run, whilst others delayed the onset of civil war. In this paper the author compares the escalation of civil war in South Ossetia and Kosovo and shows how the modes of transition deeply influenced the conflict processes in these two cases: first, she explains how the exclusive transitions from authoritarian rule in Georgia and Serbia alienated ethnic minorities and worsened interethnic relations and then shows how a transition from below in the first case favoured the escalation of conflict before the consolidation of the post-communist regime in
Georgia and how the transition from above led by Milosevic prevented the onset of armed conflict between the Kosovar Albanians and the Serbian government for almost a decade.
Natalizia, G. (2014). The Baltic and Caucasian States after the Transition. Democratization and State Consolidation. University of Peruggia.
Does democratization foster State consolidation? It is a research hypothesis still under development, in the wider field of studies on the consequences of democratization. Understanding this dynamic is particularly important in the States emerging from the fragmentation of the USSR, where, at the beginning of the democratization process, there has been a collapse of stateness. Within this group we analyzed comparatively Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, where the outcome of the transition was fully democratic, and Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, where there have been different results but not – or not at all – democratic. The paper concerns the transition process with the main dimensions of State consolidation (control over territory, material basis and administrative efficiency), in order to verify the existence of a causal relationship. The evidence shows that democratization in the Baltic States has fostered State consolidation, while in the Caucasian States the relationship appears to be more ambiguous. These case studies support the thesis that consolidated democracies have stronger States than non-democratic regimes, but non-democratic regimes present stronger States than non-consolidated regimes.
Dominioni, S. (2014). Consolidating a Hybrid Regime: the Case of Georgia under Shevardnadze and Saakashvili. University of Peruggia.
Chiriatti, A. (2014). Enemies at the doors: Turkish Foreign Policy between Syria and Georgia. University of Peruggia.
With an inductive and bottom up approach, the paper analyzes, firstly, the Turkish “shift of axis” in foreign policy, after the AK Party’s arrival at the government and, secondly, it deals with the two case-studies, i.e. the South Ossetia war in 2008 and the Syrian ongoing struggle, to underline the nexus between regionalism and geopolitics in the study of ‘the Turkish case.