Category Archives: Pre-Soviet Era

Stephen Jones – Between Ideology and Pragmatism: Social Democracy and the Economic Transition in Georgia 1918-21

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-21) was a novel experiment in social democracy in the most unexpected time and place 당신과는 천천히. Georgia was rural and mostly illiterate, and its leaders faced the complex tasks of nation and state building in conditions of external threat, internal conflict, and global economic depression 다운로드. The first democratically elected social democratic government in Europe, it confronted the inevitable tensions between market principles and socialist ideals 잔잔한 노래 다운로드. The new government’s economic policies reflected the dilemmas and contradictions faced by all social democratic parties in a capitalist environment cubicreator 다운로드. The new leaders created a mixed economy, framed by social democratic goals, but driven by pragmatism. Economic pioneers, how successful were they in creating a sustainable economic system and a model for other European socialists to follow 에벌리 다운로드?

Jones S. (2014). Between Ideology and Pragmatism: Social Democracy and the Economic Transition in Georgia 1918-21. Caucasus Survey, Vol.1, No.2, April 2014, 63-81 구글어스 모바일.


Austin Jersild and Neli Melkadze – The Dilemmas of Enlightenment in the Eastern Borderlands: The Theater and Library in Tbilisi

This article will illustrate that imperialism in the East included an impulse to promote and foster rather than curtail cultural expression 전공 서적 다운로드. This made perfect sense for a Russia that was itself an eastern borderland of a Europe understood by many Russians since the 18th century to be the primary source of their own unfolding “enlightenment” and cultural progress 슈퍼 마리오 효과음 다운로드.

Melkadze, N., & Jersild, A. (2002). The dilemmas of enlightenment in the eastern borderlands: The theater and library in Tbilisi. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 3(1), 27-49 케빈은 12살 다운로드.