Category Archives: News

New Publications: February-March 2015

Books & Book Chapters

Voell, S., & Kaliszewska, I. (Eds.). (2015). State and Legal Practice in the Caucasus: Anthropological Perspectives on Law and Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd..

Legal pluralism and the experience of the state in the Caucasus are at the centre of this edited volume. The book describes how social action and governance takes place in this region affected by a multitude of legal orders. The authors ask how conceptions of order are enforced, used, followed and staged in social networks and legal practice. Principally, how is state perceived and performed in both the North and South Caucasus? From elections in Dagestan and Armenia to uses of traditional law in Ingushetia and Georgia, from repression of journalism in Azerbaijan to the narrations of anti-corruption campaigns in Georgia a ” the text reflects the multifarious uses and performances of law and order. The collection includes approaches from different scholarly traditions and their respective theoretical background and therefore forms a unique product of multinational encounters 전서체폰트 다운로드. The volume will be a valuable resource for legal and political anthropologists, ethnohistorians and researchers and academics working in the areas of post-socialism and post-colonialism.

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MacFarlane, S. N. (2015). International Engagement and the Governance of Ethnic Diversity in Georgia. In Boulden, J., & Kymlicka, W. (Eds.), International Approaches to Governing Ethnic Diversity (pp. 243-261). Oxford University Press.

This chapter examines the role of international actors in the effort to contribute to the peaceful and democratic management of ethnic diversity. More specifically, Neil MacFarlane tries to answer what, if anything, does the Georgian case tell us about the phenomenon of international engagement in addressing sub-state ethnic diversity in this book chapter.

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Academic Articles

Delcour, L., & Wolczuk, K 오글거려 다운로드. (2015). Spoiler or facilitator of democratization?: Russia’s role in Georgia and Ukraine. Democratization, 1-20.

This article examines Russia’s reaction to political changes in Georgia and Ukraine in light of the interplay between the democracy-promotion policies implemented by the EU and US and domestic patterns of democratization. We argue that despite the relatively weak impact of EU and US policies vis-à-vis domestic structures, Russia has responded harshly to (what it perceives as) a Western expansionist agenda in pursuit of reasserting its own hegemonic position in the post-Soviet space. However, coercive pressure from Russia has also unintended, counterproductive effects. We argue that the pressure has actually made Georgia and Ukraine more determined to pursue their pro- Western orientation and has spawned democratization, thereby supporting the objectives of the Western democracy promoters.

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Tolts, M. (2014). The Jews in Georgia in the Late Soviet Period: A Demographic Profile. Studies in Bukharan, Georgian, and Caucasian Jewry: Historical, Sociological, and Cultural Aspects, 102-116 강식당3.

The demographic characteristics of the Jews in Georgia in the late Soviet period have never been deeply analyzed. To ill this gap, this article will present in detail the age-sex structure, marital characteristics, family size and fertility of these Jews as a whole and Georgian Jews, the Georgian- speaking autochthonous Jewish sub-group, among them in particular. This demographic analysis if based on Soviet census data, especially those of 1959 and 1989.

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Gotsadze, G., Zoidze, A., Rukhadze, N., Shengelia, N., Chkhaidze, N. (2015). An impact evaluation of medical insurance for poor in Georgia: preliminary results and policy implications. Health Policy and Planning. Vol. 30. P. i2-i13.

The objective of this article is to assess the impact of the new health financing reform in Georgia—‘medical insurance for the poor (MIP)’—which uses private insurance companies and delivers state-subsidized health benefits to the poorest groups of the Georgian population 다운로드. The MIP was not found to have a significant impact on service utilization growth nationwide, but in the capital city the MIP insured were 12% more likely to use formal health services and 7.6% more likely to use hospitals as compared with other areas of the country. The MIP impact on out-of-pocket health expenditures was greater in reducing costs of accessing services. The cost reductions were sizable and more pronounced among the poorest. Finally, the MIP significantly increased the odds of obtaining free benefits by insured individuals as compared with the control group. Such an increase was most noticeable for the poorest third of the population.

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Griffin, G., Noniashvili, M., & Enukidze, N. (2015). Consumer Behavior in The Republic of Georgia regarding FMCG Products: The role of Russia in affecting Consumer Behavior after reaching DCFTA with EU countries 다운로드. Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research (JEECAR), 2(1), 1-7.

Until 2008, Russia was one of the major importers of Free Market Consumers Goods (FMCG) products from Georgia as well as a major exporter of FMCG products to Georgia. After conducting a large-scale aggression against Georgia in August, 2008; occupation of two territories in Georgia, ethnic cleansing of people in those territories; and giving recognition of independence to these two territories; Georgia terminated diplomatic relations with Russian Federation on September 2, 2008. After Russo-Georgian war in 2008 the amount of imported food products from Russia decreased. The aim of the research is to study Georgian consumer behavior; identify the factors which influence consumer behavior as a result of the Russo-Georgian War and The European Union Association Agreement; and to analyze the impact of the occupation of the Georgian territories had on trade relations with Russia.

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Aliyev, H. (2015). Informal networks as sources of human (in) security in the South Caucasus. Global Change, Peace & Security, 1-16.

In contrast to numerous studies on exogenous mechanisms of human security – such as the provision of human security by international actors – this study examines the role of informal networks in providing ‘freedoms from want’ and ‘freedoms from fear’ to the population 다운로드. With the primary focus on post-communist South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia) this article conducts a rigorous examination of informal networks’ critical function as sources of human (in)security since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Based on a combination of open-ended elite (expert) interviews, field observation and closed-ended survey data, this study demonstrates that apart from the informal networks’ crucial role in generating social capital and functioning as indispensable social safety nets, they also exacerbate human insecurity by cementing the traditions of clientelism and corruption that are deeply entrenched in the region.

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O’Loughlin, J., Kolossov, V., & Toal, G. (2015). Inside the post-Soviet de facto states: a comparison of attitudes in Abkhazia, Nagorny Karabakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 1-34.

Large representative public opinion surveys conducted by the authors in 2010–2011 in the four de facto states allow a deeper comprehension of internal political and social dynamics 다운로드. Three main dimensions of their current status and orientation (relations with Russia, support for local institutions, and possibilities of post-war reconciliation) are examined using nine key comparative questions. Nationality is the main predictor of divergent opinions within the republics, and results are reported along this dimension. Close relations with the external patron, support for the legitimacy and identity of the respective de facto republics, and little interest in returning to the parent state testify to the longevity and successful promotion of state and nation in the de facto republics in the Caucasus-Black Sea Region.

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Rinnert, D. (2015). The Politics of Civil Service and Administrative Reforms in Development—Explaining Within‐Country Variation of Reform Outcomes in Georgia after the Rose Revolution. Public Administration and Development, 35(1), 19-33.

This article examines the role of politics as a determinant of civil service and administrative (CSA) reform outcomes in Georgia 다운로드. Comparing CSA reform outcomes in the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs in Georgia after the 2003 Rose Revolution through a matched case study, the article shows that certain countrywide legal adjustments, anti-corruption measures and context variables are necessary but insufficient conditions for successful reform. While in general Georgia has achieved considerable success in its CSA reform efforts, the President’s leverage over reform implementation, leadership at the ministry level and the politics of foreign aid have led to significant variation in reform outcomes across the analysed institutions. In addition to this, institutional constraints reflecting inherent differences between policy sectors explain another part of the variation in outcomes in Georgia.

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Torosyan, K., Gerber, T. P., & Goñalons‐Pons, P. (2015). Migration, Household Tasks, and Gender: Evidence from the Republic of Georgia. International Migration Review, 1-30 다운로드.

We examine whether migration affects the gender division of household tasks and participation in leisure within origin-country households using survey data from the Republic of Georgia. Our theoretical framework identifies two sets of mechanisms whereby migration might influence gender differences in home activities: migrant experience effects and migrant absence effects. We test for
both types of effects on the probability that men and women perform gender atypical household tasks and engage in leisure activities by comparing households with and without currently absent and return migrants using probit regressions. We find evidence for both migration absence and migration experience effects on gender differences in housework and leisure. However, these effects are complex and contradictory: generally, male migration tends to exacerbate gender differences in the sending household while female migration tends to ameliorate them.

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Khuntsaria, T matlab 무료. (2014). External Democracy Promotion in Georgia: the Role of the European Union (Doctoral Dissertation, University Of Oxford).

Considering that the EU has devoted certain financial and technical resources to the country’s democratic development, legitimate questions arise about what role it has actually played in the country’s yet incomplete democratisation process. The puzzle of the present study thus is to understand and explain the relationship between the EU’s external political impact and democratisation in Georgia.

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New Publications: November-December 2014


Japaridze, E., Barkaia, M., Zhghenti, N., & Amashukeli, M. The Study of Georgian Youth’s Awareness, Perceptions and Attitudes of Gender Equality. Tbilisi: Center for Social Sciences.

The aim of this study was to explore the nature of gender attitudes and beliefs among Georgian youth. Specifically, this study focuses on three intersecting themes: (1) attitudes towards gender roles at home (2) attitudes towards women’s careers (3) attitudes towards sexuality. These themes form gender beliefs, which in turn are a significant component of the gender system.


Rapp Jr, S. H. (2014). The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes: Caucasia and the Iranian Commonwealth in Late Antique Georgian Literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 여과와우유애정 다운로드.

Google Books

Jafarova, E. (2014). Conflict Resolution in South Caucasus: Challenges to International Efforts. Lexington Books.

Academic Articles

Gevorkyan, A. V. (2014). The legends of the Caucasus: Economic transformation of Armenia and Georgia. International Business Review.

Considered peripheral in economic terms the structurally fragile Armenia and Georgia with obvious limitations are open to international business. This article constructs a compact analytical synthesis of the duo’s potential across macroeconomic, industrial, external exposure risk, institutional, and the Diaspora (dispersion) effects within the five forces model of the social and economic transformation. Post-Great Recession dynamic analysis, sketching sectoral and business trends, tackles issues of market entry and foreign investor strategy. Armenia’s impressive pre-crisis pattern has yet to be recovered, while Georgia’s post-crisis record has been more consistent with earlier years 다운로드. Armenia’s entrepreneurial and innovative capacity, vital to new business accommodation, ranks above Georgia’s, where traditional sectors are dominant. All in all there is a need for an individual, not “bulk”, analysis of the post-socialist periphery. Foreign firms’ managers are suited to gain if acquire local context and local (or Diaspora-) based partner (public or private) prior to regional or standalone entry. Despite multiple headwinds, both economies retain strong international business potential and hope for an economic and social resurrection.

Science direct

Charkviani, T. The Police System Reform in Georgia (Informal Power its Forms, Types and Spheres of Influence). International Journal of Area Studies,9(2), 95-112.

It is a widely accepted notion that the major change brought by the 2003 November revolution in Georgia was the reform of the public services 다운로드. Two major tasks were to be achieved for the state institutions: to monopolize the use of legitimate power on the state territory and to start providing services to the citizens. Police reform was at the heart of both these objectives. The major obstacle identified on the way of this reform was corruption. Indeed it was widely known that posts in police forces were to be purchased; policemen were involved in organized crime, extortion, and other illegal pursuits. But the corruption itself was the effect of the broader system in which patrimonial system of not distinguishing between the public office and private sphere was hybridized with the legal-rational rule, having its origin in the Soviet Union. The main subject of our research is to analyze the model of informal power network in Georgian police, to describe its configurations and identify its social actors.

De Gruyter

Huseynov, T acrobat dc 다운로드. Transitional intervention strategies for conflict transformation in the South Caucasus. Caucasus Survey, 2, 130-141.

This article discusses major policy and institutional interventions needed for conflict transformation in the South Caucasus. It examines how different forms of territorialpolitical organisation of government have been used to mitigate both violent and nonviolent conflicts and how international experience could be applied to promote peaceful resolution of the conflicts over Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorny Karabakh. The article shows how the conflicting parties’ mental fixation on final status stalls peace processes, and argues that rather than discussing end-state solutions or end-state models of governance, conflict parties need to focus on interim (transitional) policy and institutional arrangements that would allow them to normalise relations and set out roadmaps for cooperation and gradual reconciliation. The article also underlines the importance of adhering to standards of good governance and human rights, as necessary preconditions for ensuring the legitimacy, and thus, sustainability, of peace processes.

Caucasus Survey

Zviadadze, S 다운로드. (2014). I ‘like’my Patriarch. Religion on Facebook. New Forms of Religiosity in Contemporary Georgia. Online-Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet, 6.

Rising of religiousness is a significant characteristic of Georgian society in post-communistic period. Revitalization of religion is vivid as on individual (increased amount of religious people) as well as on institutional (increased role and authority of the Church) level.
Increased religiosity is manifested not only in a traditional form of piety (church attendness, observance of rituals), but also in expression if religion in new media (preaches of clerics on youtube, church bell as ringtones in mobile phone, picture of church as desktop photos). How is religion transferred on facebook? Is facebook a kind of space of public religiosity in contemporary Georgia?
According to recent studies facebook is Georgia’s most popular Internet platform. Facebook is a space, where people most widely and frequently discuss religious issues, whether it is orthodox religious opinions or critical understanding of religion hwidgen.mk3. Most frequently users of facebook are young people. The paper seeks to understand how religion is present on facebook and how young people affiliate with religious issues. The paper deals with the question if “religious face” on facebook correlates with religious identity in life. Therefore the aim of proposed paper is to explore new tendencies of religiosity of young people, what kind of influence does religion have on facebook in construction of identity.
Generally, the paper will try to explore the new forms of religiousness (for example asking forgiveness publicly on facebook on “day of forgiveness”) – is it performance of traditional religion through new medium or are we dealing with profanation of religion?

Uni Heidelberg

Dragojevic, M., Berglund, C., & Blauvelt, T. K. (2014). Attitudes Toward Tbilisi-and Mingrelian-Accented Georgian Among Georgian Youth On the Road to Linguistic Homogenization?. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 0261927X14555191 네이버 뮤직 영상.

Two matched-guise studies examined language attitudes among Georgian youth toward two varieties of spoken Georgian: Tbilisi-accented Georgian (standard variety) and Mingrelian-accented Georgian (nonstandard variety). Study 1, conducted in Tbilisi, found that listeners (N = 106) attributed more status and solidarity to the standard variety, regardless of self-reported regional identity (Tbilisieli, Mingrelian, other). Study 2, conducted in Samegrelo, found that self-identified Mingrelians (N = 96) attributed more status and solidarity to the standard variety, regardless of language use at home. Together, these findings suggest that Mingrelians may be undergoing a generational shift in their language attitudes in favor of linguistic homogenization.


Ó Beacháin, D., & Coene, F 다운로드. (2014). Go West: Georgia’s European identity and its role in domestic politics and foreign policy objectives. Nationalities Papers,42(6), 923-941.

This article sheds light on the Euro-Atlantic discourse in Georgia by situating it in a wider frame. It provides an analysis of its Euro-Atlantic orientation by presenting it as a continuation of past efforts to involve European powers in Georgian affairs and highlights changing trends in this aspect of contemporary foreign policy. Far from determining whether or not the Georgians are European, the different arguments that have been used to support Georgian “Europeanness” are evaluated to assess its role in the national identity construction process. Focusing primarily on the United National Movement government led by Mikheil Saakashvili, we demonstrate how the Euro-Atlantic discourse has been employed domestically by the political elite as a legitimacy management strategy and explore its function in seeking Western patronage, a key foreign policy goal.

Taylor and Francis

Kikvidze, Z., & Tevzadze, G 다운로드. (2014). Loss of traditional knowledge aggravates wolf–human conflict in Georgia (Caucasus) in the wake of socio-economic change. Ambio, 1-6.

Reports of the damage from wolf attacks have increased considerably over the last decade in Georgia (in the Caucasus). We interviewed locals about this problem in two focal regions: the Lanchkhuti area (in western Georgia) and Kazbegi District (in eastern Georgia) where livestock numbers had increased by an order of magnitude owing to dramatic shifts in the local economies over the last decade. This coincided with expanding habitats for wolves (abandoned plantations, for example). We found that the perceived damage from wolves was positively correlated with a poor knowledge of wolf habits and inappropriate livestock husbandry practices. Our results suggest a loss of traditional knowledge contributes strongly to the wolf–human conflicts in Georgia. Restoring traditional, simple but good practices—such as protecting herds using shepherd dogs and introducing bulls into the herds—can help one solve this problem.


Must-Read Article

Jones, S 다운로드. F. Kakha Bendukidze and Georgia’s failed experiment. openDemocracy, January 2, 2015. Retrieved from Open Democracy

Working Paper

Lanchava, L. (2014). Does Religious Activity Affect Childbearing Decisions? The Case of Georgia. The Case of Georgia (December 1, 2014). CERGE-EI Working Paper Series, (521).


New Publications: October 2014

Project “Georgica” presents the brief overview of publications about Georgia issued in October, 2014.


Agadjanian, A., Jödicke, A., &  van der Zweerde, E. (Eds.). (2014). Religion, Nation and Democracy in the South Caucasus. Routledge.

This book explores developments in the three major societies of the South Caucasus – Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia – focusing especially on religion, historical traditions, national consciousness, and political culture, and on how these factors interact. It outlines how, despite close geographical interlacement, common historical memories and inherited structures, the three countries have deep differences; and it discusses how development in all three nations has differed significantly from the countries’ declared commitments to democratic orientation and European norms and values. The book also considers how external factors and international relations continue to impact on the three countries.

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Book Chapter

Japaridze, T., & Roubanis, I. (2014). EU versus Russia Standoff: Georgia’s Virtual ‘Choice’. Rethinking the Future of Europe: A Challenge of Governance, 243.

This chapter argues that Russian policy in the post-Soviet space, which engulfs Georgia, is a mirroring and fractured image of Europe’s Neighbourhood Policy 다운로드. To the Brussels’ motto that very much framed the road to the Vilnius Summit in November 2013, namely ‘more-for-more’, Moscow keeps responding with the motto ‘more-or-else’. This negative conditionality points to security, energy and now trade ‘costs’ associated with not being pro-Russian in the, so called, Near Abroad region. This threatening toolbox is underlined by an ideological discourse of Eurasianism, that is, the vision of a Russian renaissance that will restore Moscow to its ‘rightful place’. Tracing the origins of this discourse, from the margins to the epicenter of Russian political discourse, this chapter argues that Europe has had its own share of responsibility for estranging Russia, turning Moscow into ‘a European other’ rather than an integral part of the vision for a united Europe spreading ‘from the Atlantic to the Urals’. In this scheme, this chapter argues, countries such as Georgia, in the margins of Europe and too Near (to Russia) to be Abroad, are by defect captured in a so far visionless buffer zone 다운로드. In this sterile encounter, devastating to Russia as much as Europe, the pending question is whether they will become (Russian) ‘satellites’ or (Western) ‘democratic enclaves’. A positive alternative would be for these countries to become the bridge, picking up where the post-1989 generation left off the campaign for a ‘return to Europe’.

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Tsuladze, L. (2014). Between Westernization and Assertion of the National: Youth Perceptions in the New European Countries and the Margins of Europe. In Vainovski-Mihai, I. (Ed.), New Europe College Black Sea Link Program Yearbook 2010-2011, 2011-2012 (pp. 253-301). Bucharest: New Europe College.

It is a widespread assumption that today the boundaries are becoming fuzzy and that never was the shifting of places as easy as nowadays 다운로드. Usually scholars bring the example of the European Union (EU) as a case in consideration. Despite this fact (or probably because of this fact), the discourse on “Fortress Europe” has gained a new incite today. How it is possible that in the conditions of the ongoing EU enlargement the frontiers of Europe are constantly consolidated? How is it possible that the countries that have managed to return to their “Mother” Europe after the collapse of the communist regime need to constantly prove their Europeanness, while those remaining on the margins of Europe desperately try to persuade the European “Core” that despite their peripheral position, they belong to Europe because of their historical, religious, cultural heritage, etc. The cases of Romanis and Poland, on the one hand, and Georgia, on the other, represent wonderful exapmles of attempting to prove one’s Europeannes both when it should not be questionable any more (as Poland and Romania are the EU member countries) and when it is still questionable (as Georgia is not part of the EU).

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Academic Articles

Karagiannis, E. (2014). The Russian Interventions in South Ossetia and Crimea Compared: Military Performance, Legitimacy and Goals. Contemporary Security Policy, (ahead-of-print), 1-21 vista sp2.

Russian interventions in South Ossetia and Crimea indicate a major shift in Moscow’s policy towards the former Soviet republics. This article compares the two interventions in terms of military performance, basis of legitimacy, and motivational goals. This confirms the formation of a new and more assertive Russian policy in the region. Although there were significant differences between the two interventions, improved Russian military capabilities reveal the Kremlin’s plans to project power in the near abroad. The Russian leadership used similar legal justifications for the two interventions, based on the Kosovo precedent, opening the possibility of further military action in the former Soviet space. Notwithstanding the legal excuse, Moscow mainly intervened in Georgia and Ukraine to prevent further NATO enlargement eastwards, regain geopolitical influence regionally, and respond to perceptions of insecurity and a sense of humiliation 다운로드. With the possible exception of the Baltic States, the rest of the former Soviet republics could, sooner or later, fall under Russia’s sway. It is a challenge that the West can choose to confront either with tougher sanctions and more involvement in the region, or by initiating a new process of socializing Russia into the international community, with security assurances and economic incentives in return for acknowledgement of Russia’s role as a great power.

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Kabachnik, P., Mitchneck, B., Mayorova, O. V., & Regulska, J. (2014). The Multiple Geographies of Internal Displacement: The Case of Georgia. Refugee Survey Quarterly, hdu012.

The multiple geographies approach, which combines the spatial-analytic and sociospatial perspectives, highlights the lack of homogenous experience for internally displaced persons across places. After laying out the significance of the multiple geographies approach, we show how geographical perspectives on the economic, material, and social circumstances of internally displaced persons in Georgia cast a different light on creating visibility for their experiences, possibilities for amelioration of circumstances, and the creation of spaces of displacement. We argue that data presentation in a categorical manner is useful for highlighting the forced migrant experience but that adding the sociospatial lens provides deeper insight into human security and people’s lived experiences 지금만나러갑니다 일본 다운로드. We do this through a discussion of the material and social life of internally displaced persons in collective centres as compared to those in private accommodation, by gender, and in different locations in Georgia. We argue that we are ultimately able to improve human security by refining our knowledge of the internally displaced persons’ experiences by highlighting spatial processes.

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Pearce, K. E., & Rice, R. E. (2014). The Language Divide—The Persistence of English Proficiency as a Gateway to the Internet: The Cases of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. International Journal of Communication, 8, 26.

Understanding sociodemographic barriers to adoption and use of the Internet continues to be an important research topic, especially considering the increased importance of access and use of information and communication technologies around the world 라이브스트림 다운로드. Extending a digital divide framework, this study analyzes the influences on and relations among awareness, adoption, and (frequent) use of the Internet in the developing countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Data from nationally representative samples fit a model predicting that age, economic well-being, education, urbanness, and English proficiency all influence each Internet digital divide. Age, education, and urbanness are the primary determinants of awareness of the Internet. Language proficiency is the second most important determinant of adoption and the most important influence on use. Despite growing Internet adoption, inequality remains, based on sociodemographic and economic status at each Internet divide. In addition, for these linguistically isolated states, English proficiency being a strong influence on adoption and use indicates a further divide between elites and nonelites.

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Tudoroiu, T 윈도우 크랙 다운로드. (2014). The Regional Foreign Policies of Black Sea “New Populist” Leaders. Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe, (ahead-of-print), 1-20.

This article compares the regional foreign policies of the four Black Sea non-great power post-communist states. It is argued that the prominent roles played for a time by Georgia and Romania and their unprecedented influence on Black Sea political and security developments were due to foreign policy options stemming from the “new populist” character of national leaders. The latter took advantage of post-9/11 US regional involvement in order to enhance their international profile and thus increase their domestic mass support. Bulgarian and Ukrainian “new populist” leaders failed to conduct similarly visible regional policies mainly due to domestic factors.

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Gzoyan, E 다운로드. G., Hovhannisyan, L. A., Aleksanyan, S. A., Ghazaryan, N. A., Hunanyan, S. R., Bourghida, A., & Sargsyan, S. A. (2014). Comparative analysis of the scientific output of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Scientometrics, 1-18.

The article discusses the scientific output of the three South Caucasus republics: Armenia,Azerbaijan and Georgia (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia are widely referred to as Transcaucasia Republics or South Caucasus Republics). It focuses on the scientific publications of Armenia,Azerbaijan and Georgia indexed in the Web of Science international database. The article first examines the role of the three republics in Soviet science and the scientific papers they produced during the last decade of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The article then studies the scientific situation in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia after the restoration of their independence in 1991, reviewing the three republics’ scientific publications, their citations and their scientific cooperation, as well as other scientific indicators 인어공주 다운로드.

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Pelkmans, M. (2014). Paradoxes of Religious Freedom and Repression in (Post-)Soviet Contexts. Journal of Law and Religion (ahead-of-print), 29, no.3

The religious revival that followed the collapse of the USSR provides an excellent opportunity tocompare the dynamics of projects of religious freedom with those of religious repression. Based on extensiveethnographic fieldwork in Georgia and Kyrgyzstan, this article documents the contradictory effects that bothrepressive and liberal policies and laws have on religious expression. Thus, while Soviet anti-religious policiesundeniably caused much suffering and hardship, religious repression also contributed to an intensification ofreligious experience among certain Muslim and evangelical groups. And while religious freedom laws expandedthe scope for public religious organization and expression, they also produced new inequalities betweenreligious groups, as the cases of Georgia and Kyrgyzstan demonstrate. Ultimately, the article shows that theeffects of liberal and repressive laws are far from straightforward and need to be analyzed in relation to thesocial context in which they are applied.

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Papava, V., & Charaia, V. (2014). Regional Railways in the Central Caucasus and Georgia’s Economic Interests. The Caucasus & Globalization, 8(1-2).

This article examines two regional railway projects, one of which – Kars-Akhalkalaki-Tbilisi-Baku (KATB) is already reaching completion and the second – restoration of the Abkhazian Section of the Trans-Caucasian Railway (ASTCR) – is still being discussed at the political level. The article also looks at such important aspects of both projects as construction or restoration cost, financial and freight turnover, profitability, direct and indirect economic benefits, and social effects. It also gives recommendations for improving railway transportation projects.

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New Publications: September 2014

Project “Georgica” presents the brief overview of publications about Georgia issued in September, 2014.


Babayan, N. (2014). European Union and United States Democracy Promotion: EU, US, and Russia in the South Caucasus. Routledge.

This book investigates democracy promotion by the European Union and the United States of America, and seeks to uncover why intensive democracy promotion has resulted in limited democratic progress. Exploring case studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, this book examines the conditions in which democracy promotion is more likely to result in democratic transformation 다운로드. In addition, it introduces the concept of the “democracy blocker,” a powerful authoritarian regional actor that is capable of blocking democratization in other countries. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of Political Science, Democracy, Democratization, EU Studies, US Politics, Comparative Politics, and Foreign Policy.

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Academic Articles

Pelkmans, M 로지텍 g27 드라이버. (2014). Paradoxes of Religious Freedom and Repression in(Post-)Soviet Contexts. Journal of Law and Religion, 29(3).

Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Georgia and Kyrgyzstan, this article documents the contradictory effects that both repressive and liberal policies and laws have on religious expression. Thus, while Soviet anti-religious policies undeniably caused much suffering and hardship, religious repression also contributed to an intensification of religious experience among certain Muslim and evangelical groups 홍연 mp3 다운로드. And while religious freedom laws expanded the scope for public religious organization and expression, they also produced new inequalities between religious groups, as the cases of Georgia and Kyrgyzstan demonstrate. Ultimately, the article shows that the effects of liberal and repressive laws are far from straightforward and need to be analyzed in relation to the social context in which they are applied.

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Jasutis, G 가을동화. (2014). Military integration between Russia and South Ossetia: quo vadis?. Russian Armed Forces Military Reforms and Capability Development (2008-2012), 16(1), 46.

The article focuses on the South Ossetian and Russian military integration, determining its effectiveness, potential and durability by employing the methodology of military integration. The work is divided into four stages to determine the level of durability and cooperation between Russian and South Ossetian militaries. The article concludes that the military integration has reached the fourth level, which supports a functional dependency between the Russian and South Ossetian armed forces and the cost-effective implementation of military tasks and defense policy 히든싱어 다운로드.

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Hewitt, G. (2014). History in the Context of the Georgian-Abkhazian Conflict. Iran and the Caucasus, 18(3), 289-314.

As long as the Georgian-Abkhazian dispute remains unresolved, there will be problems regarding inter-state relations with/for western Transcaucasia. And there can be no resolution of the Abkhazian issue without a proper understanding of Abkhazia’s history (both ancient and more recent); it was to try to ensure that the debate is not based on misconceptions, unsubstantiated assertions or even plain errors that this article was written 다운로드. It is grounded on a consideration of a range of materials (from Agathias’ Greek text through relevant discussions in Georgian, Russian and English). The toppling of Abkhazia’s democratically elected president (Aleksandr Ankvab) at the end of May 2014 makes the question of Abkhazia even more topical.

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Weinar, A 다운로드. (2014). A Look at Migrations in the Post‐Soviet Space–the Case of Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and Russian Federation. International Migration, 52(5), 47-51.

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Conference Papers

Oskanian, K. (2014). Balancing a Tightrope: Constraints, Possibilities and Ideology in Georgian Foreign Policy, 1991-2014. UACES 44th Annual Conference, Cork, 1-3 September, 2014 다운로드.

This essay will analyse the complex Georgian-Russian-Western triangle from a neo-classical realist theoretical viewpoint. It provides explanation of Georgia’s foreign and security policy behaviour encompassing 4 distinct periods: Shevardnadze’s early period (1992-96), marked by rapprochement with Russia after Zviad Gamsakhurdia’s disastrous presidency; Shevardnadze’s late period (1996-2003), marked by an increasingly Westward-leaning policy; Saakashvili’s early period (2003-2008), marked by stridently pro-Western policies and strong corresponding ideological inclinations; and a late Saakashvili period with pro-Western policies being maintained despite of the heavy defeat of the 2008 war.

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Dell’Aguzzo, L. (2014). Modes of Transition and the Timing of Civil War Onset: A Comparative Analysis of South Ossetia and Kosovo. XXVIII Sisp Conference, University of Perugia, September 11-13, 2014.

The aim of this paper is to explain how the modes of regime change influence the timing of civil war onset, that is why some paths of transition from autocracy favoured the escalation of political violence in the short-run, whilst others delayed the onset of civil war. In this paper the author compares the escalation of civil war in South Ossetia and Kosovo and shows how the modes of transition deeply influenced the conflict processes in these two cases: first, she explains how the exclusive transitions from authoritarian rule in Georgia and Serbia alienated ethnic minorities and worsened interethnic relations and then shows how a transition from below in the first case favoured the escalation of conflict before the consolidation of the post-communist regime in
Georgia and how the transition from above led by Milosevic prevented the onset of armed conflict between the Kosovar Albanians and the Serbian government for almost a decade 세븐 나이츠 다운로드.

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Natalizia, G. (2014). The Baltic and Caucasian States after the Transition. Democratization and State Consolidation. University of Peruggia.

Does democratization foster State consolidation? It is a research hypothesis still under development, in the wider field of studies on the consequences of democratization. Understanding this dynamic is particularly important in the States emerging from the fragmentation of the USSR, where, at the beginning of the democratization process, there has been a collapse of stateness 다운로드. Within this group we analyzed comparatively Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, where the outcome of the transition was fully democratic, and Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, where there have been different results but not – or not at all – democratic. The paper concerns the transition process with the main dimensions of State consolidation (control over territory, material basis and administrative efficiency), in order to verify the existence of a causal relationship. The evidence shows that democratization in the Baltic States has fostered State consolidation, while in the Caucasian States the relationship appears to be more ambiguous. These case studies support the thesis that consolidated democracies have stronger States than non-democratic regimes, but non-democratic regimes present stronger States than non-consolidated regimes.

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Dominioni, S. (2014). Consolidating a Hybrid Regime: the Case of Georgia under Shevardnadze and Saakashvili. University of Peruggia.

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Chiriatti, A. (2014). Enemies at the doors: Turkish Foreign Policy between Syria and Georgia. University of Peruggia.

With an inductive and bottom up approach, the paper analyzes, firstly, the Turkish “shift of axis” in foreign policy, after the AK Party’s arrival at the government and, secondly, it deals with the two case-studies, i.e. the South Ossetia war in 2008 and the Syrian ongoing struggle, to underline the nexus between regionalism and geopolitics in the study of ‘the Turkish case.

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New publications: August 2014

Project “Georgica” presents the brief overview of publications about Georgia issued in August, 2014.


Lejava, N., & Asatiani, S. (Eds.). (2013). South Caucasus at a Crossroad: Thorny Realities and Great Expectations. Tbilisi: Heinriech Boell Foundation.
The book consists of four main sections. The first part, entitled “The West and the Region: Views from Outside and Within “provides in-depth, realistic and matter-of-fact perspectives on the complex interrelations between the EU and USA, on the one hand, and Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan on the other 윈도우7 윈도우10 다운로드. After the overview of the intricate interrelations between the West and the region, the book devotes separate sections to internal situations in Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan – from a political perspective, as well as from the point of view of post-Soviet modernization, the state of civil society and urban development.
Book review

Gilbreath, D. (2014). A Tangled Path to Europe. New Eastern Europe.

Review of Bittersweet Europe. Albanian and Georgian Discourses on Europe, 1878-2008 달빛조각사 44권 텍본 다운로드. By: Adrian Brisku. Publisher: Berghahn Books, August 2013.

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Academic Articles

Gugushvili, A., & Kabachnik, P. (2014). Stalin is dead, long live Stalin? Testing socialization, structural, ideological, nationalist, and gender hypotheses. Post-Soviet Affairs, (ahead-of-print), 1-36.

Recently, there has been a renewed focus on analyzing post-Soviet memory, including the rekindling of debate on contemporary perspectives of Josef Stalin 영화 라푼젤 다운로드. Most notably, the publication of The Stalin Puzzle has helped bring attention to the persistence of positive accounts and admiration, along with ambivalent and contested images, of the former dictator of the Soviet Union. Using survey data and multivariate statistical methods, we test five broad hypotheses – socialization, structural, ideological, nationalist, and gender – to ascertain what factors might shape people’s attitudes toward Stalin in Georgia. Our analysis reveals that elderly, poor men from rural areas have the most positive associations of Stalin, whereas young, wealthier women from cities, those who are open to privatization, and perceive Russia as Georgia’s biggest threat judge Stalin negatively 봉제인형 살인사건. Counterintuitively, non-Georgian minorities show higher esteem for Stalin than Georgians. We envision that the effects of cohort replacement, economic development, and urbanization will decrease positive perceptions of Stalin in years to come

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Makaryan, S., & Chobanyan, H. (2014). Institutionalization of Migration Policy Frameworks in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. International Migration.

This article is a comparative study of the institutionalization of the migration policy frameworks of post-Soviet states Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. All three countries share common historical legacies: a Soviet past, wars and conflicts, unemployment, high emigration, and commitment to integration into European bodies 구글 포토 사진 pc. To what extent do the migration policies of these three countries (driven by contextual forces, i.e. domestic challenges) address country-specific migration dynamics? Or are they imposed by the European Union? In which dimensions have the national policies on migration of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia evolved, and around which issues have they converged or diverged? Have these trends led to an integration of migration policymaking at the regional level in the South Caucasus?

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Goltz, T 다운로드. (2014). Eduard Shevardnadze: The Silver Fox Remembered*. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-5.

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Conference paper

Papava, V. (2014). On the Consumer Model of Economic Development of Poor Countries (The Cases of Georgia and Russia) International Conference in Economics – EconWorld 2014

It has been shown that both in Georgia and Russia, essentially identical consumer models  of development of poor countries have established. Stimulating consumption without proper  development of real economy has led in Georgia to the fact that in recent years, import has been  three times greater than export 천리마마트 5화 다운로드. The focus of the Georgian economy on consumption, rather than on  production, is evidenced by the fact that the total volume of private and public consumption equals  approximately 90% of GDP. Orientation towards consumption with an underdeveloped real sector  of the economy in Georgia led to the fact that 40% of the population found themselves below the  poverty line. According to estimates, 86% of the population experience serious social problems.  Within the Russian GDP structure there was a steady trend of a negative correlation of the volume  of savings and investments in fixed assets while the share of savings in Russia’s GDP did not  exceed 20% 해리포터와 아즈카반의 죄수 다운로드. Nearly every third resident of Russia is virtually poor; i.e., in actuality, 30% of  Russia’s population belongs to the disadvantaged group rather than the 9% that is recognized  officially. The Russian type of poverty is characterized by a concentration of poor population in  rural areas which, as a rule, is attributable to Third World countries. In order to transfer to an  innovative model of economic development, it is essential to stimulate the interest of the private  sector of the economy and, towards this end, the exchange of relevant experience would prove mutually beneficial 노빈손.

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Think tank report

Nalbandov, R. (2014) Democratization and Instability in Ukraine, Georgia, and Belarus.  Strategic studies institute of US War College

This monograph analyzes the interconnections between the democratic institutionalization of the newly independent states of Ukraine, Georgia, and Belarus, their political (in)stability, and economic development and prosperity. By introducing the concept of regime mimicry into the field of public administration, this monograph extends the epistemological frameworks of the democratization school to the phenomenon of political culture 다운로드. Successes and failures of the democratic institutionalization processes in these countries largely depend on the ways their institutional actors reacted to internal and external disturbances of their domestic political, econmic, and cultural environments. While Georgia’s political culture revealed the highest degree of flexibility in accepting the externally-proposed institutional frameworks and practices, the bifurcate political culture in Ukraine impeded its democratic institutionalization, while the rigid political culture in Belarus completely stalled the process of institutional transformations.

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