This paper argues that the European Union’s attempts to externalize JHA policies and turn neighbouring countries into partners contributing to its internal security are hampered by numerous factors, including its obvious ambivalence towards these countries. The limitations of pursuing internal security objectives through a ‘soft’ partnership approach are particularly visible in the South Caucasus. The paper examines the EU’s policies in Georgia and finds that they lack strategic vision and coherence. EU activity in Georgia illustrates three major challenges to the export of JHA policies in the neighbourhood: (1) the form of relations between the EU and its supposed partners (‘modes of governance’); (2) the EU’s policies vs. local expectations; and (3) the contradictions in the EU’s objectives (democracy vs. efficiency).
Di Puppo, L. (2009). The externalization of JHA policies in Georgia: partner or hotbed of threats?. European Integration, 31(1), 103-118.
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